Heller’s myotomy

Achalasia Cardia Treatment

What is Achalasia Cardia?

Achalasia affects the esophagus, the tube that carries swallowed food from the back of the throat down into the stomach. A ring of muscle called the lower esophageal sphincter encircles the esophagus just above the entrance to the stomach. This sphincter muscle is normally contracted to close the esophagus. When the sphincter is closed, the contents of the stomach cannot flow back into the esophagus. Backward flow of stomach contents (reflux) can irritate and inflame the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn.

The act of swallowing causes a wave of esophageal contraction called peristalsis. Peristalsis pushes food along the esophagus. Normally, peristalsis causes the esophageal sphincter to relax and allow food into the stomach. In achalasia, which means ❝failure to relax❞, the esophageal sphincter remains contracted. Normal peristalsis is interrupted and food cannot enter the stomach.

What causes Achalasia Cardia?

Achalasia is caused by degeneration of the nerve cells that normally signal the brain to relax the esophageal sphincter. The ultimate cause of this degeneration is unknown. Autoimmune disease or hidden infection is suspected.

What are the symptoms?

Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, is the most common symptom of achalasia. The person with achalasia usually has trouble swallowing both liquid and solid foods, often feeling that food “gets stuck” on the way down. The person has chestpain that is often mistaken for cardiac pain. Heart burn and difficulty belching are common. usually this condition gets steadily worse. Other symptoms may include nighttime cough or recurrent pneumonia caused by food passing into the lower airways.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of achalasia begins with a careful medical history. The history should focus on the timing of symptoms and one eliminating other medical conditions that may cause similar symptoms. Endoscopy. In this test, a tube containing a lens and a light source is passed into the esophagus. Endoscopy is used to look directly at the surface of the esophagus. This test can also detect tumors that cause symptoms like those of achalasia. Cancer of the esophagus occurs as a complication of achalasia in 2-7% of patients.

How is cholecystitis diagnosed?

Diagnosing cholecystitis starts when you describe your symptoms to your doctor. Next is a physical exam. Your doctor will carefully feel your right upper abdomen to look for tenderness. You may have blooddrawn and an ultrasound, a test that uses sound waves to create a picture of your gallbladder. Ultrasound may show gallstones, thickening of the gallbladder wall, extra fluid, and other signs of cholecystitis. This test also allows doctors to check the size and shape of your gallbladder.

Surgical options – Heller’s Myotomy

A surgical procedure called the Heller myotomy has become the treatment of choice and offers long-term symptomatic relief to those who have the disorder. This procedure weakens the muscles at the gastroesophageal junction, allowing the valve between the esophagus and stomach to remain open. Although there is no definitive medical treatment, medical therapies may help to relieve the symptoms of achalasia in its early stages.