Best Liver Specialist Hospital in Coimbatore
Liver Specialist Hospital in CoimbatoreColon Malignancies:
Best Liver Specialist Hospital in Coimbatore:
Functions of the Colon :
Before to know about the colon cancer, ELCE Hospital we are the best liver specialist hospital in Coimbatore who takes care of the liver defects. The colon and the rectum are the terminal portions of the gastrointestinal system. In the small intestine, the final digestion of food and absorption of the nutrients contained in the food occurs.
The undigested food which is absorbed enters the large intestine (colon) and finally the rectum. The large intestine acts primarily as a storage and conduit facility for the undigested food waste; however additional water, salts, and some vitamins are further absorbed in large bowel also thereby ensuring that essential nutrients from food are utilized fully. The undigested dietary residue like the fiber component forms the maximal bulk of stools. Art of the fiber also is utilized by colonic bacteria and some of the products of digestion are absorbed from the colon into the bloodstream.
Colonic Polyps :
Colonic polyps are a slow-growing proliferation of the colonic mucosa that carries a small risk of becoming malignant.
First Grade Liver Specialist in Coimbatore Classifieds the Colorectal Polyps:
Classification of colorectal polyps-
neoplastic (tubular adenoma,villous adenoma),
hyperplastic, hamartomatous or inflammatory
The risk of malignant degeneration is related to both the
size and type of polyp.
Diagnosis – by colonoscopy can be performed by the best liver specialist hospital in Coimbatore.
Treatment – Endoscopic excision can be done for small polyps. Multiple polyps with infiltration need major surgery.
Risk factors for Colon Malignancy-
Elderly age group
Hereditary risk factors
Environmental and dietary factors- High risk in populations that consume diets high in animal fat and low in fiber.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease- Long-standing IBD patients have a higher risk
Inherited colorectal cancers occur in certain conditions such as – Familial Adenomatous Polyposis(FAP), Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer, Familial Colorectal Cancer.
Best Liver Specialist Hospital in Coimbatore List the Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer:
Symptoms of colorectal cancer include:
In Initial stages, most of the cancers are asymptomatic or cause mild symptoms only. As the size increases patients develop symptoms like
-Altered bowel habits
– persistent diarrhea or severe constipation
-bleeding coming from the rectum or mixed with stools
– Malena or altered black color stools due to bleeding more proximally
– Pain abdomen in advanced stages
– a feeling of distension even without food intake
– Loss of weight
-Fatigue or tiredness
-Feeling of a large mass in abdomen ( in advanced stages)
ELCE Hospital, the promising liver specialist in Coimbatore can examine the symptoms of colon cancer easily.
Liver Specialist in Coimbatore Diagnosis the Colon Cancer:
- Fecal occult blood test – A very important and basic test that is used for screening the presence of tumors in the bowel and small bowel.
- Sigmoidoscopy- for tumors of the rectum, sigmoid colon
- Colonoscopy –Endoscopy which visualizes the entire colon. It’s the procedure of choice to diagnose and confirmatory test for colonic cancers. It can detect even small lesions at an early stage itself and therefore most important.
- CT Abdomen- Imaging CT with contrast is important to detect and diagnose cancers. More useful in staging as it shows the size of the actual lesion, infiltration to adjacent structures, the involvement of nearby lymph nodes, distant spread and helps in deciding the final treatment.
- CEA blood test- CEA ( Carcinoembryonic antigen ) is a tumor marker for colonic cancers and used along with above modalities
- Air contrast Barium enema
Colonoscopy by Best Liver Specialist Hospital in Coimbatore:
Colonoscopies long, a flexible, tubular endoscopic instrument about 1/2-inch in diameter that directly visualizes the inner lining mucosa of the colon so the doctor can examine it for any abnormalities. The colonoscope is placed through the rectum and advanced to the other end of the large intestine.
It’s an outpatient procedure. The patient is given laxatives and bowel is prepared first. Then colonoscopy is done and the images seen on a monitored by the liver specialist in Coimbatore. Any abnormality like nodules or polyps are seen and biopsy can be done via the scope itself. Polyps can also be removed using device done via scope and so it’s therapeutic also.
Staging denotes the size and spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes or distant spread (metastases ) and is important to determine the treatment modality and prognosis.
Stage 1: Cancer grows on the inner layer of the colon or rectum avoiding the wall of the rectum or colon.
Stage 2:The cancer has grown on the inner layer or wall of the colon or rectum avoiding the nearby lymph nodes.
Stage 3: disease includes tumor involves any thickness of bowel wall (T) with nodal metastases, and
stage 4: disease denotes distant metastases spread to other organs
Surgical Treatment Provided by Liver Specialist in Coimbatore:
Early-stage Bowel Cancer( Stages I and II):
For early bowel cancers always surgical removal is recommended. For most people with early-stage colon cancer (stage I and most stage II), the only treatment suggested is surgery. The primary treatment of carcinoma
of the colon is to excise the primary tumor along with its lymphovascular supply.
For lesions in the cecum and right colon-right hemicolectomy is indicated
For lesions in the proximal or middle transverse colon-extended right hemicolectomy can be performed
For lesions in the splenic flexure and left colon, a left hemicolectomy is suggested by the liver specialist in Coimbatore.
For sigmoid colon lesions, sigmoid colectomy is suitable.
Low rectal cancer – APR (Abdomino-perineal resection)
High rectal cancer – Abdominal resection AR
TME – total mesorectal excision is the standard resection performed and ensures that the primary tumor with adequate tissues are removed
the advent of laparoscopy has revolutionized the surgical approach to colonic resections for cancers. Large-sized tumors can be safely removed with minimal incisions thanks to laparoscopy. The extensive dissection done previously has been greatly simplified now. The usage of lap staplers and circular staplers have ensured the lowering of post-surgical complications and morbidity to patients
Surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is needed as here the disease has spread to lymph nodes and preventing recurrence is important
Palliative resection, colostomy, chemotherapy are the options and decided based on the patient’s profile.
Best Liver Specialist Hospital in Coimbatore Defines Bowel Obstruction:
Some patients may present with bowel obstruction at the time of diagnosis. The lumen may be completely blocked and the patient presents with an inability to pass stools, abdomen distension
Such patients are taken for emergency colostomy procedures to decompress the bowel and then later on the second stage resection procedure is done by the liver specialist in Coimbatore.
Endoscopic Metal Stenting:
This is a recent advancement wherein patients with acute obstruction of terminal stages or even in initial stages, the obstruction is relieved by
Endoscopic placement of a Metal Stent across the obstruction The patient can pass stools normally from the next day and then resection procedure can be planned.
Palliative resection :
For some patients with advanced cancers with liver spread,
Surgical resection of the tumor is done to avoid obstruction and to improve quality of life even if it does not prolong survival. This is called palliative resection